Antioxidants: Molecules capable of immobilising free radicals before they attack cell bodies. Antioxidants can be obtained as a part of a diet or as dietary supplements.

Artificial nutrition: A medical intervention when oral intake of food and liquids is not possible or does not adequately provide nutrients necessary for the body’s daily activities. It could be oral nutritional supplements (ONS), enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN).

Asymptomatic: Lack of symptoms or subjective manifestations of a disease.

BMI: Body mass index (BMI) is a measure for indicating nutritional status in adults (normal weight, overweight, and obesity). It is a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square root of the person’s height in meters (kg/m2).

Basal metabolic rate (BMR): BMR is the required energy to maintain essential body functions. It is measured in mega joules, kilojoules, or kilocalories per minute, hour, or day.

Cachexia: A complex metabolic syndrome characterized by loss of muscle (with or without loss of fat mass) in adults, and growth suppression in children, frequently associated with inflammation, anorexia and insulin resistance.

Carcinogen: A substance that increases the incidence of cancer in living tissue, this could be chemical, physical, or biological.

Carcinoma: A type of cancer derived from epithelial cells, malignant tumour able to spread into the surrounding tissue (invasion) and create secondary tumours (metastases).

Central venous catheter: Also, called a central line. It is a thin, flexible tube used to give medicines, fluids, nutrients, or blood products over a long period of time. It is often inserted in the arm or chest through the skin into a large vein.

Chemoradiation: The combination of chemotherapy with radiation therapy.

Chronic: A term used to describe a disease or a condition that persists or progresses over a long period of time.

Clinical examination: Searching for signs of disease by physically examining the body. 

Clinical trial: A research study that tests how well new medical approaches work in people, for example, new methods of screening, prevention, diagnosis or treatment.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): DVT is a blood clot formation in a deep vein of the leg that may include pain, feeling of warmth in the leg, swelling, and redness.

Dietary factors: Substances and characteristics of the diet; e.g., the amount of total fat, dietary fibre and the method of cooking.

Electrocardiogram (ECG): An ECG show changes in the electrical activity of the heart over time. It can identify abnormal conditions, such as blocked arteries and changes in electrolytes. 

Endoscopy: A medical procedure where a tube-like instrument is inserted into the body for professional medical observation.

Enteral nutrition: Nutritional support is provided by constructing an artificial line to the gastrointestinal system. It could be a tube in the nose (nasogastric) a tube through the skin into the stomach (gastrostomy) or a tube into the small intestine (jejunotomy).

Energy balance: Energy balance occurs when the absorbed energy from foods and drinks equal the total energy spent. In the case of intake exceeding expenditure, it is a positive energy balance. When the expenditure exceeds intake, it is a negative energy balance.

Enzyme: A protein that accelerates chemical reactions in the body. 9 Fermentation: A metabolic breakdown of molecules, such as glucose, which converts energy to lactate, acetate, ethanol, or other simple products.

Follow-up: Observing a person’s health over time, during/after receiving treatment.

Gastroesophageal reflux: The back flow of stomach acid contents into the oesophagus. Also, called gastric reflux, oesophageal reflux or acid reflux. 

Glucose: Body fuel, present as a simple form of sugar, carried by the blood to cells for energy. It is produced when foods are metabolized in the digestive system. 

Helicobacter pylori: Also known as H. pylori. A bacterium that causes inflammation and ulcers in the stomach or small intestine. People with that infection are more likely to develop cancer in the stomach, including MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma.

High-protein diet: A type of weight loss plan based on the overall consumption of high-protein containing foods.

Hormones: Chemical messengers produced by the body’s endocrine glands and distributed in the bloodstream. Hormones control the activities of certain cells or organs.

Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ leading to enlargement.

Immune system: A biological system of structures and processes that defends the body from diseases by identifying and killing foreign bodies such as viruses, bacteria and tumour cells.

Invasive cancer: Tumours that grow into surrounding healthy tissue. 

Lifestyle factors: Identifiable and quantifiable habits and ways of living (e.g. diet, smoking, drinking, hobbies) that are useful in differentiating population clusters for epidemiological studies.

Lymphocyte: A form of white blood cell, found in the blood and lymph glands and part of the body’s immune system.

Melanoma: The most dangerous form of skin cancer. A malignant tumour derived from the pigment-producing cells (melanocytes).

Metabolism: The chemical changes that occur in living organisms to maintain life, so it can be used to store or use the energy needed by the body.

Metastasis: The development of secondary malignant cancer cells to distant locations around the body.

Muscle wasting: A weakening, shrinking, and loss of muscle mass due to a disease or immobility resulting in an overall decrease in strength and movement.

Mutagen: A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA causing permanent, transmissible change in the genetic material of a cell.

Nasogastric probe: A specific device used for enteral nutrition in particular clinical cases where the patient is unable to self-nourish.

Nausea: An unpleasant sensation, painless with subjective feeling that one will urgently vomit.

Neoplasm: Abnormal growing of tissue in a part of the body. Neoplasms could be benign or malignant tumours.

Obesity: Surplus of body fat leading to increased risk of various diseases. Obesity is defined as a BMI of 30 kg/m 2 or more.

Parenteral nutrition: Nutritional support is given via the blood stream ‘intravenously’, formulae contain nutrients such as glucose, salts, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins and dietary minerals.

Processed meat: Meat that is transformed through smoking or other procedures-examples include hot dogs, ham, sausages, corned beef and canned meat.

Prognosis: The likely cause of a disease and the chance of recovery or recurrence.

Proteins: Complex molecules made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units called amino acids, which are attached to one another in long chains. Proteins play many critical roles in the body, they do most of the work in cells and are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s tissues and organs.

Red meat: Refers to meat originating from beef, veal, pork, lamb, mutton, horse, and goat. 2 Relapse: Return of a disease after a period of recovery.

Remission: Withdrawal of or decrease in signs and symptoms of cancer.

Risk factor: A causative element which could increases the possibility of developing a disease. Cancer risk factors may include: age, family history, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, tobacco use and specific genetic changes.

Dietary supplement: A product intended for consumption that contains a “dietary ingredient” which has not been consumed in sufficient quantities. A “dietary ingredient” may be one, or any combination of, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs or other botanicals.

Supportive care: Provision of care to patients who have a serious or life-threatening disease to improve the quality of their life. The goal is to prevent or treat as early as possible the symptoms of a disease, side effects caused by treatment of a disease, and the social and psychological problems related to a disease or its treatment.

Systemic therapy: A medicinal remedy that travels through the bloodstream, reaching and affecting cells all over the body. Examples of systemic therapy are chemotherapy and immunotherapy.

Targeted therapy: A treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells. It may have fewer side effects when compared to other types of cancer treatments.

Trace elements: Minerals needed by the body in very small quantities for the appropriate growth, development, and physiology of the organism.

Veins: Blood vessels which carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart, with two sole exceptions: the pulmonary and umbilical veins which carry oxygenated blood to the heart. Veins are often closer to the skin and mostly have valves to prevent backflow.

Vitamins: Vitamins are organic compounds and vital nutrients that the body needs in small amounts to sustain life. Sources of vitamins include plant-based or animal-based food products and supplements.